,
 

Historyguy.com

World War Two

Kristallnacht: The Night of Broken Glass
 Kristallnacht: Night of Broken Glass

Germans pass by a Jewish shop destroyed by Nazis in Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass

Kristallnacht: The Night of Broken Glass

  

Kristallnacht is considered by many historians to mark the start of Hitler's war against the Jews: The Holocaust.

 

Kristallnacht, or the Night of Broken Glass, was a night of bloody attacks against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and Nazi-ruled Austria and the Sudetenland, on November 9 and 10, 1938.

Jewish homes and businesses were ransacked, as as Nazi Sturmabteilung stormtroopers and civilian Nazi supporters attacked shops, towns and villages, destroying Jewish-owned buildings with sledgehammers and leaving the streets covered in pieces of smashed window glass; the origin of the name "Night of Broken Glass." Ninety-one Jews were killed, and 30,000 Jewish men were taken to concentration camps, where they were tortured for months, with over 1,000 of them dying. Between 1,000 and 2,000 synagogues were attacked, and 267 set on fire. Almost 7,500 Jewish businesses were destroyed, and Jewish cemeteries and schools were vandalized.

Martin Gilbert writes that no event in the history of German Jews between 1933 and 1945 was so widely reported as it was happening, and the accounts from the foreign journalists working in Germany sent shock waves around the world. The Times of London wrote at the time: "No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults on defenceless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday."

The event that gave the Nazis an excuse to launch the attacks, was the assassination of the German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by a German-born Polish Jew named Herschel Grynszpan, in Paris, France. Grynszpan's father's shop in Hanover had been confiscated by the Nazis a few days earlier, and his family deported to Poland. The younger Grynszpan had intended to assassinate the German ambassador to France in retaliation, but settled on the Third Secretary, von Rath, instead. This rash act gave Hitler's Chief of Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, the perfect rationalle for inciting more hatred and violence against the Jews in Germany.

On November 11, the Nazi Minister of the Interior issued regulations prohibiting Jews' possession of weapons. This law prohibited Jews from "acquiring, possessing, and carrying firearms and ammunition, as well as truncheons or stabbing weapons. Those now possessing weapons and ammunition are at once to turn them over to the local police authority." This form of gun control ensured that Jews could not effectively fight back as the Nazis planned more attacks on the Jewish community.

The Kristallnacht attacks was followed by increased economic and political persecution of Jews in Germany. Kristallnact and is seen by many historians as the beginning of Hitler's Final Solution and the Holocaust against the Jews. Hitler was encouraged by the passive response of the German population, specifically the German churches, and knew he could go much further in his war on the Jews in Germany.

Pin It

 

 

Sources and Links on Kristallnacht:

 

Kristallnacht-from the Jewish Virtual Library

Kristallnacht-Wikipedia article

Kristallnacht - PBS

Kristallnacht - The History Place

Additional Info

Pin It

 

Read the History Guy Weblog and the War and Conflict Journal--New

Re-Enactment of Jefferson Davis' Inauguration Re-Enacts Treason and Evil--posted Dec. 22, 2010

New Greek Guerrilla Group Seeks Anarchy and Preaches Nihilism–Targets Economy and Tourism--posted Aug. 8, 2010 --posted Aug. 8, 2010

New Fighting on Israel-Lebanon Border--posted Aug. 3, 2010

Submarines Remind China the U.S. is Still a Pacific Power--posted July. 9, 2010

Korean Tensions Increase Over South Korean Ship Attack by North Korea--posted May 20, 2010

Iran, Syria, and Hezbollah may be preparing for a summer, 2010 war against Israel--posted May 1, 2010

2010 Kyrgyzstan Uprising Could Involve Both America and Russia--posted Aug. 8, 2010

Joe Stack Joins Other Domestic Terrorists on the Dark Side of History--History Guy Commentary, posted Feb. 19, 2010

Fatah vs. Usbat al-Ansar Fighting in the Ain al-Helweh refugee camp in southern Lebanon. Four killed.--posted Feb. 15, 2010

Maoist Rebels Attack Indian Forces--posted Feb. 15, 2010

Iran War Creeping Upon Us--posted Jan. 16, 2010

Earthquake Adds to Haiti's Tragic History--posted Jan. 13, 2010

Yemen With al-Qaida Threat May Be New Front In War--posted Jan. 4, 2010

al-Qaida in North Africa Strikes--posted Dec. 31, 2009

Attempt to Bomb Northwest Airlines Flight 253 on Christmas Day 2009--posted Dec. 26, 2009

Joseph Stalin: History's Villain--posted Dec. 22, 2010

Wars Between Israel and Syria: From 1948 to the Present

Major Wars and Conflicts of The 20th Century*New*

Kyrgyzstan Uprising 2010*New*

Wars and Conflicts of Great Britain*New*

Issues Facing Military Veterans and Former POWs

Cambodia-Vietnam War (1977-1991)

China-Vietnam War of 1979

Wars and Conflicts of Lebanon

Images and Pictures of The German Invasion of Norway (1940)

Images and Pictures of The German Invasion of Denmark (1940)

Inter-Palestinian Civil Wars and Conflicts

Six-Day War (1967)

War in Afghanistan: Operation Moshtarak/Battle of Marja

Civil Wars of Chad

The Bombing of the U.S. Marines Barracks in Beirut (October 23, 1983)

Haiti History: Government, History, and Economy

Wars, Coups, and Conflicts of Haiti

List of Haitian Leaders

History of Yemen: Wars and Politics--

Terrorism: Attempt to Bomb Northwest Airlines Flight 253 on Christmas Day, 2009

The War on Terror/Long War/al-Qaida War

Venezuela-Colombia Conflict (2009)

Wars, Conflicts, and Coups of Colombia

Wars, Conflicts, and Coups of Venezuela

The Winter War: The Soviet Attack on Finland (Nov. 30, 1939-March 1, 1940)

India's Forgotten War: The Maoist Insurgent War In India

The Battle of the Atlantic-Naval warfare in the Atlantic Ocean during World War Two

The Battle of the River Plate (Dec. , 1939)--The sinking of the German pocket battleship, the Graf Spee

Korean Naval Battle (November, 2009)

Thailand-Cambodia Border Dispute

Saudi-Yemen Border Conflict (2009)

Wars of Southern Africa :1899-Present --An overview of the colonial wars, civil wars, and other conflicts in southern africa from 1899 to the present

Anglo-Dutch Wars --An overview of the wars between Britain and the Netherlands.

The Use of American Military Forces Around the World 1981-1990

Iran's Baluchistan Rebellion (2003-Present)

U.S. Operations Against al-Qaida in Somalia (2006-Present)

German Invasion of Poland (1939)--The decision by Hitler to launch his Nazi invasion of Poland became the starting point for the start of World War Two in Europe, and enabled Hitler's Holocaust to find more Jewish victims among Poland's large Jewish population.

Images and Pictures of the German Invasion of Poland

Video and Film of the German Invasion of Poland (1939)

Wars of Poland-

Gulf War MIA Scott Speicher's remains found- --Details on Gulf War Page

Medals of Honor Awarded for the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan-

Wars, Conflicts, and Coups of the Philippines--

Wars of 1939--wars and conflicts leading up to World War Two.

War in Afghanistan: Operation Khanajar/Strike of the Sword (July 2009-Present)--

Honduras Coup of June, 2009--

Sa'dah al-Houthi Rebellion in Yemen (2004-Present)

North Korean Nuclear Crisis

Korean Border Conflicts and Incidents (1953-Present)---

Taliban War in Pakistan--

Naval Incidents Between the United States and China (2009)

Habsburg-Valois Wars: French Wars in Italy (1492-1516)--

Wars of the Hapsburg Empire (Austria-Hungary) from 1815 to 1918-

Wars of the Horn of Africa: Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Somalia-

Bangladesh Army Mutiny of 2009--

 

Gaza Strip Conflict/Gaza War--

Ehud Barak Announcement about the start of the Israeli ground offensive January 3, 2009-

Wars of 1909--

Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Crisis (1908-1909)

British Wars 1945 to the Present

Wars and Conflicts of Georgia

The American Civil War--New section on the History Guy website

Waziristan Revolt (1919-1920)

Russian Military History (1815-1918)--

Greco-Turkish Wars --

Wars of India--

The Wars of Egypt--

Nations With A Losing Record In War---Ever wonder who the top losers are? Check it out!

Attack on Pearl Harbor-

The Battle of Gettysburg--

Sino-Japanese Wars--A series of wars between China and Japan.

The Wars of Mexico--

Norman Invasion & Conquest of England (1066)--

French Military History (1919-1939)

French Military History (1945-Present)

Wars of the 21st Century

Arab-Israeli Border Wars-

Arab-Israeli Wars

Anglo-Iraqi Wars-

Second Persian Gulf War (1st Iraq War/Desert Storm)

Wars of the Papacy

Third Balkan War

U.S.-Mexican War

Wars of Vietnam

World War Two--Under revision

Wars of the United States

Wars of Iraq

The Iraq War

privacy policy