Peru share a long border made up largely of jungle and
high mountains. As is the case with many such borders
around the world, disputes arise, and conflict breaks
out. In this century, these Latin American neighbors have
fought three times, (1941, 1981 and 1995), over the area
known as the Cordillera del Condor region. After much
bloodshed and, since 1995, much negotiating, these Andean
nations signed a peace accord on October 26, 1998.
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Facts or Trends
OF CONFLICT: Ecuador-Peru
NAMES: Marañon War, Zarumilla Campaign
July 5, 1941
July 31, 1941
OF CONFLICT: Inter-State
World War 2
Ecuador-Peru Border Wars in 1981 and 1995Pin
territorial dispute between Ecuador and Peru originated
in Spanish Colonial times. Upon independence, Ecuador
joined what is now known as"Great Colombia", comprised of
the territories of Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia and
Panama (then a part of Colombia). In 1829, the Treaty of
Peace and Limits of Guayaquil was signed. Subsequently,
in 1830, Pedemonte-Mosquera Protocol was signed. They
established the Marañon-Amazon River as the border
between Peru and Ecuador; however, Peru has contested
these agreements. Between 1936 and 1938, representatives
from Ecuador and Peru attempted to negotiate a treaty in
Washington, D.C., consequently, the Peruvians withdrew
from the negotiations. A series of border clashes were
fought in the years between 1938 and 1940. Peru decided
to settle the matter by force after a border clash in
was unprepared to meet the July 5 Peruvian invasion. The
much larger Peruvian army of 13,000 men, supported by a
battalion of armor, together with artillery and air
support (known as Group of the North or agrupamiento del
Norte commanded by General Eloy G. Ureta), moved quickly
into the southern coastal province of El Oro, threatening
Guayaquil. The fewer than 1,800 Ecuadorian troops in the
area lacked air cover and could offer only limited
resistance. The Ecuadorian president's fear of being left
unprotected from his political opponents led him to keep
the nation's best fighting forces in Quito. Peruvian
forces also moved into the disputed Amazonian territory
without significant opposition. Peruvian troops
continuously attacked the nation's southern and eastern
provinces until a ceasefire went into effect on July 31.
After a campaign lasting only three weeks, an armistice
The 1941 war
with Ecuador was a major success for Peruvian forces. By
theend of the month, when military actions ceased, Peru
held Ecuador's southernmost province of El Oro and much
of the disputed eastern jungle territory that had been
part of Ecuador since the 1830s.Pin
Protocol of February 1942 awarded to Peru some 205,000
square kilometers of previously disputed Amazon
territory. The subsequent Protocol of Peace, Friendship,
and Boundaries (Rio Protocol) imposed on Ecuador
acceptance of Peru's claims in the Amazonian region in
return for Peruvian withdrawal from Ecuador's coastal
Up to 400-500 killed
107 members of Air Force, Army, and Guarda Civil killed
FACTS OR TRENDS: This
section is formed from the opinion of the History Guy
regarding this conflict.
First use of paratroops in Latin America (by Peru).
Wood, The United States and Latin American Wars
1932-1942. New York, Columbia University, 1966.
H. Zook, Jr., Zarumilla-Marañon: The Ecuador-Peru
Dispute, New York, Bookman Associates, 1964.
on the Ecuador-Peru Conflict
Borders Make Good
Science Monitor article on the recent peace
--Information from Native Web.
Plan for Development of the Border
from the Federation of American Scientists.
Invisible Victims of War--
Start Work on "Park of Peace"
Please cite this source when appropriate:
Lee, R., and
Halcli, J. "Ecuador-Peru Border War (1941)"
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