Norman Invasion of England(1066)-William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy and a vassal of the French king, conquered the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England, and made himself King of England. Resulting from this, the English and French royal families would fight many bloody wars trying to settle who was supposed to rule what. William's family acquired lands throughout France and ruled them as Englishmen, which really upset the French kings. This is a pretty watered-down, basic description of this rivalry, but these two nations have fought many, many wars, and William's conquest of England was the starting point for many of the earlier ones.
The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)-The Hundred Years' War was actually a series of wars between England and France which lasted 116 years. Most historians break this conflict into four distinct wars.
Anglo-French War-(1337-1360) -The Edwardian War
Anglo-French War-(1369-1373) -The Caroline War
Anglo-French War-(1412-1420) -Henry V invaded France, with the goal of taking the French crown. The English won the Battle of Agincourt. The French king agreed to peace a few years later, and the Treaty of Troyes ended this phase of the war in 1420.
Anglo-French War-(1423-1453) -The Lancastrian War. This phase of the war was named after the English House of Lancaster, and ended in English defeat. England lost all of her French territorial possessions except for the Channel port of Calais.
Anglo-French War-(1488) -Also known as Henry VII's Invasion of Brittany.
Anglo-French War-(1489-1492) -Also known as Henry VII's Second Invasion of Brittany.
Anglo-French War-(1510-1513)-Also known as the War of the Holy League, England joined with the Pope, several Italian states, Swiss cantons and Spain against France. King Henry VIII of England won a favorable peace from France after winning the Battle of the Spurs on August 16, 1513. The rest of the Holy League continued fighting France until the Pope Julius II's death, which helped cause the dissolution of the League.
Anglo-French War-(1521-1526)-Henry VIII joined the Hapsburg Empire in a war against France. The war proved both unpopular in England and expensive financially, and the King had difficulty raising money from Parliament. After 1523, England did not participate much in the war.
Anglo-French War-(1542-1546)-Henry VIII again joined the Hapsburg Empire in a war against France. The English captured the port of Boulogne and the French had to accept that when the peace treaty was signed. The war cost England two million English pounds.
Anglo-French War-(1549-1550)-French King Henry II declared war with the intention of retaking Boulogne, which fell to him in 1550. This war was preceded by years of border combat short of all-out war.
Anglo-French War-(1557-1560)-England's Queen Mary drew her country into war allied to Spain , whose king was her husband. Very unpopular war with the English people. England lost possession of Calais on the French mainland. When Queen Elizabeth later took the throne, religious and political differences would make England and Spain bitter enemies.
Anglo-French War-(1589-1593)-England was caught up in the great Protestant-Catholic wars sweeping Europe. England sided with Protestant Dutch rebels against Catholic Spain and with the Protestant (Huguenot) French against the Catholic French in the Wars of Religion, a series of French religious civil wars. In 1589, while still fighting Spain after defeating the famous Spanish Armada, Elizabeth sent troops to aid the French Protestants.
Anglo-French War-(1627-1628)-Also known in France as the Third Bearnese Revolt, England came to the aid of Huguenot rebels fighting the French government.
Anglo-French War-(1689-1697)-Known in Europe as the War of the League of Augsburg AND as the War of the Grand Alliance and in North America as King William's War.
Anglo-French War-(1702-1712)-Known in Europe as the War of the Spanish Succession, in North America as Queen Anne's War and in India as the First Carnatic War. This conflict also included the Second Abnaki War. The Abnaki Indian tribe allied itself with the French against the English colonists in North America.
Anglo-French War-(1744-1748)-Known in Europe as the War of the Austrian Succession and in North America as King George's War.
Anglo-French War-(1749-1754)-Known in India as the Second Carnatic War. The British East India Company and its Indian allies battled the French East India Company and its Indian allies.
Anglo-French War-(1755-1763)-Known in Europe as the Seven Years' War and in North America as the French and Indian War. France forever lost possession of Quebec/Canada. In many ways, England's victory set the stage for the American Revolution.
See also Timeline of Amerian Colonial Indian Wars for more context of the French and Indian Wars in North America that also involved Native American tribes.
Anglo-French War-(1779-1783)-Also known as the American Revolution. Also involved Spain, the United States and the Netherlands against Britain. Can also be considered as an Anglo-French War, Anglo-Spanish War and a Anglo-Dutch War.
Wars of the French Revolution, (1792-1802)-The Wars of the French Revolution spanned a decade of great political, social and military change throughout the European continent. After the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, the conservative, monarchical powers of Europe attempted to extinguish the new French Republic and restore the Bourbon Royal Family. When several nations combined against France, the alliances were known as "Coalitions". Thus, this series of wars are known as the Wars of the Coalitions.
Austro-Prussian Invasion of France, (1792)-In support of the deposed, but still living French King Louis XVI, Austria and Prussia invaded France. French Revolutionary armies defeated the Allies at Valmy and Jemappes and conquered Austrian-ruled Belgium. France also defeated Austrian forces in northern Italy, seizing Savoy and Nice. Can also be considered as a Franco-Austrian War and a Franco-Prussian War.
War of the First Coalition, (1792-1798)-Britain, Austria, Prussia, Spain, Russia, Sardinia and Holland combined to fight Revolutionary France. Can also be considered as a Franco-Austrian War , a Franco-Prussian War, a Franco-Dutch War , a Franco-Russian War, Anglo-French War, and a Franco-Sardinian War. Russia left the Coalition in 1794 to deal with troubles in Poland. French victories forced Holland, also known then as the Batavian Republic, to leave the Coalition in 1795. Prussia and Spain made peace with France in 1795 and Austria signed the Treaty of Campo-Formio in 1798, surrendering the Austrian Netherlands (now Belgium) to France.
This war included the battles of Neerwinden, Mainz, Kaiserlautern (early Allied victories). Later, as the Revolutionary government organized the populace and fielded huge "citizen armies" commanded by brilliant young generals like Napoleon Bonaparte, the French won many battlefield victories.
War of the Second Coalition, (1798-1801)-Britain, Austria, Russia, Portugal, Naples and the Ottoman Empire combined to fight Revolutionary France. Spain later joined France against Portugal. Can also be considered as a Franco-Austrian War , a Franco-Russian War, a Anglo-French War, a Franco-Turkish War, a Franco-Neapolitian War , a Franco-Portuguese War and a Franco-Russian War. This alliance against France formed to counter French moves in Italy; formation of the Roman, Ligurian, Cisalpine and Helvetic Republics in Switzerland and Italy, and the deposition of Papal rule in Rome. Naples was conquered by the French in early 1799 and declared to be the new Parthenopean Republic.
After the Coalition war began, France intervened in an internal revolt in the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss Revolt of 1798, (1798) ended with the Swiss Confederation dissolved and the Helvetic Republic in its place. Throughout the rest of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, the Swiss were effectively under French rule with an army of occupation in place
Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Turkish Egypt and won the Battle of the Pyramids, continuing his march into what is now Israel and Lebanon. British Admiral Horatio Nelson wiped out the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile in 1798. Due to French victories on land against both Turkish and British troops, the Ottoman Empire made peace with France at the Convention of El-Arish in 1800.
Part of this Coalition war is the so-called War of the Oranges (1801), in which France and Spain invaded Portugal. France sought to end Portugal's trade with Britain, and Spain sought Portuguese territory. In the Peace of Badajoz, Portugal promised to end trade with Britain, give land to Spain, and part of Brazil to France. This "Brazilian" land is the modern-day French Guiana.
This war included the battles of Cassano, Tribbia River and Novi (early Allied victories). Following Russian withdrawal from the war due to quarrels with Austria, the French under First Consul Bonaparte won the Battle of Marengo in 1800. The Coalition collapsed after Austria lost the Battle of Hohenlinden in December, 1800 and signed the Peace of Luneville in February, 1801.
The Napoleonic Wars (1802-1815)
War of the Second Coalition (1798-1801)-Britain, Austria, Russia, Portugal, Naples and the Ottoman Empire combined to fight Revolutionary France. Spain later joined France against Portugal. This alliance against France formed to counter French moves in Italy; formation of the Roman, Ligurian, Cisalpine and Helvetic Republics in Switzerland and Italy, and the deposition of Papal rule in Rome. Naples was conquered by the French in early 1799 and declared to be the new Parthenopean Republic. Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Turkish Egypt and won the Battle of the Pyramids, continuing his march into what is now Israel and Lebanon. British Admiral Horatio Nelson wiped out the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile in 1798. Due to French victories on land against both Turkish and British troops, the Ottoman Empire made peace with France at the Convention of El-Arish in 1800.
See also: Anglo-Spanish Wars
Anglo-French War (1803-1814)--While other European nations waged war and then sued for peace against Napoleonic France, Britain was in a continual state of war against France from 1803 through the first defeat of Napoleon in 1814.
Peninsular War (1807-1814)-This war began with the French Invasions of Portugal and Spain, and also included Great Britain, who sent forces to help the Portuguese and Spanish drive out the French. From the British perspective, the Peninsular War was a part of the long-running war between Britain and France from 1803 to 1814.
Anglo-French War (1815)--After Napoleon's defeat in 1814, Napoleon was sent into exile on the island of Elba by the victorious allies. Napoleon, however, had no intention of spending his life in exile. Gathering his followers, Napoleon escaped Elba, landed in France, and began what is referred to as "The Hundred Days," in which he reclaimed the leadership of France, and once again faced off against a coalition of foes.
His defeat at Waterloo by British and Prussian forces put an end to this last official Anglo-French war.
See also: Second Hundred Years War: A Series of Anglo-French Conflicts
Anglo-French War (1940-1942)--During World War Two, despite being allies against the Axis powers, an unusual conflict arose between the British and the "official" French government that came to power after France's surrender to Germany in 1940. The so-called Vichy French government (so named for the capital of this new French government, which sat in the city of Vichy), cooperated with the Germans and this caused concern among the British, who decided to destroy the French fleet at the Battle of Mers-el-Kébir, in which the British Navy sank or damaged eight French warships, killing nearly 1,300 French sailors. Then, in 1941, British, Free French (loyal to General DeGaulle), and other Allied forces invaded the Vichy French colonies of Syria and Lebanon, resulting in about 6,000 Vichy French casualties. Finally, in 1942, British and American forces landed in Vichy-controlled Morocco and Algeria, engaging in combat with Vichy French forces. This period of Anglo-(Vichy) French warfare was the last military conflict between Britain and France.
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