The South Asian nations of
India and Pakistan have fought multiple wars against each other since
they both gained independence from Britain simultaneously in 1947.
With independence, they almost immediately plunged into war over the
fate of the mountainous Jammu-Kashmir region. All of their conflicts
with each other stem from the Kashmir conflict, with the exception of
the Bengladesh War of Independence in 1971, in which India aided the
rebels of East Pakistan to become the sovereign nation of Bangladesh.
India and Pakistan came
close to war multiple times due to Pakistan's support of militant
groups (India calls them terrorists), seeking to expel India from
Kashmir. Attacks on the Indian Parliament in 2001, a terrorist attack
on the Indian city of Mumbai in 2008, and the 2019 bombing that
killed 40 Indian troops, among other acts of violence in Kashmir have
brought these two nuclear-armed foes to the brink of war several
times in the 21st Century. India blames Pakistan for these attacks,
and the threat of war continues to hang over South Asia.
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Kashmir War (1947-1948)--1st Indo-Pakistani War-As India
and Pakistan gain independence from the United Kingdom, the two
new nations clash over ownership of the Jammu and Kashmire
Kashmir War(1965)--2nd Indo-Pakistani War-India and Pakistan fight
again, and this war features the largest armored tank battle in
the world since World War Two.
Bengali War of
Independence (1971)--3rd Indo-Pakistani War-This third
major war between India and Pakistan is not over Kashmir,
but arose out of the Bengali War of Independence in what was
then known as East Pakistan. India intervened to force Pakistan
to give up East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
Siachen War (1984-2003)
Indo-Pakistani War-The Siachen Glacier is in the Kashmir area,
and as such, is part of the dispute between India and Pakistan.
Each side fought to maintain control over this strategic area.
Border Conflict(1991-Present)-Arising out of the Kashmiri Insurgency
against Indian rule. Pakistan offers sanctuary and support to
the Kashmiri militants (India claims Pakistani control over the
militants), and this leads to ongoing border
(1999)--5th Indo-Pakistani War- A serious border war in which
Pakistan directly engaged Indian forces while supporting
on Indian Parliament (2001)-Pakistani-supported terrorists
attacked the Indian Parliament
on Mumbai (2008)--Pakistani-supported terrorists attacked
the Indian city of Mumbai, killing 179.
Clash and Air Attacks
(2019)--India and Pakistan engaged in air attacks on each other
and artillery duels resulting from a Kashmiri separatist
group's bombing that killed 40 Indian troops in