India-Pakistan Wars & Conflicts

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The South Asian nations of India and Pakistan have fought multiple wars against each other since they both gained independence from Britain simultaneously in 1947. With independence, they almost immediately plunged into war over the fate of the mountainous Jammu-Kashmir region. All of their conflicts with each other stem from the Kashmir conflict, with the exception of the Bengladesh War of Independence in 1971, in which India aided the rebels of East Pakistan to become the sovereign nation of Bangladesh.

India and Pakistan came close to war multiple times due to Pakistan's support of militant groups (India calls them terrorists), seeking to expel India from Kashmir. Attacks on the Indian Parliament in 2001, a terrorist attack on the Indian city of Mumbai in 2008, and the 2019 bombing that killed 40 Indian troops, among other acts of violence in Kashmir have brought these two nuclear-armed foes to the brink of war several times in the 21st Century. India blames Pakistan for these attacks, and the threat of war continues to hang over South Asia.

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First Kashmir War (1947-1948)--1st Indo-Pakistani War-As India and Pakistan gain independence from the United Kingdom, the two new nations clash over ownership of the Jammu and Kashmire region.

Second Kashmir War (1965)--2nd Indo-Pakistani War-India and Pakistan fight again, and this war features the largest armored tank battle in the world since World War Two.

Bengali War of Independence (1971)--3rd Indo-Pakistani War-This third major war between India and Pakistan is not over Kashmir, but arose out of the Bengali War of Independence in what was then known as East Pakistan. India intervened to force Pakistan to give up East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

Siachen War (1984-2003) --4th Indo-Pakistani War-The Siachen Glacier is in the Kashmir area, and as such, is part of the dispute between India and Pakistan. Each side fought to maintain control over this strategic area.

Kashmir Border Conflict (1991-Present)-Arising out of the Kashmiri Insurgency against Indian rule. Pakistan offers sanctuary and support to the Kashmiri militants (India claims Pakistani control over the militants), and this leads to ongoing border clashes.

Kargil War (1999)--5th Indo-Pakistani War- A serious border war in which Pakistan directly engaged Indian forces while supporting Kashmiri militants.

Terrorist Attack on Indian Parliament (2001)-Pakistani-supported terrorists attacked the Indian Parliament

Terrorist Attack on Mumbai (2008)--Pakistani-supported terrorists attacked the Indian city of Mumbai, killing 179.

2016 Indo-Pakistani Border Clashes


Border Clash and Air Attacks (2019)--India and Pakistan engaged in air attacks on each other and artillery duels resulting from a Kashmiri separatist group's bombing that killed 40 Indian troops in Kashmir.

Some links to Indian Military resources

Pages on Indian and Pakistani Military History  

Links to Resouces on :

2008-2009 Confrontations over Mumbai Attack

SCENARIOS - Assessing risks of India, Pakistan confrontation--Reuters, Jan. 16, 2009

Indian and Pakistani Nuclear Arsenals

India, Pakistan and the Bomb:The Indian subcontinent is the most likely place in the world for a nuclear war-- Article from Scientific American. Date: Dec. 1, 2001


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