The region of
Southern Africa has a bloody history of wars against
colonial and racist rule, as well as prolonged civil wars
after independence. Many of the conflicts from the 1960s
through the 1980s were strongly influenced by the Cold
War between the Western Powers and the Soviet Union and
its allies, in particular, the communist nation of Cuba,
which sent thousands of combat troops to take part in the
Angolan Civil War.
Rhodesian Troops on Patrol in
the Rhodesian Bush War
Second Boer War (1899-1902)--Britain
vs. The Boer Republics (Orange Free State and Transvaal)
in what is now South Africa.
Revolts (1895-1899) -
Native uprisings against Portuguese colonial rule in
French rule. France crushed the revolt.
African Civil War (1960-1994)--Black
nationalist rebels fought against the white-ruled
apartheid government of South Africa. The 1994 election
ended white minority rule and began the period of
War of Independence (1961-1975)-
Fought against Portugal.
War of Independence (1964-1975)-
Fought against Portugal.
War of Independence (1966-1990)
Civil War (1967-1979)-
Can also be considered the Zimbabwe War of Independence.
Rebels of the black majority fought a guerilla war
against the white minority government of Ian Smith. Smith
had declared unilateral independence from Britain rather
than end white rule. The war concluded with a peace
agreement in which each adult received the right to vote
regardless of race.
Civil War (1975-2002)-
Following independence from Portugal, the two primary
rebel groups, the Marxist MPLA and the "pro-Western"
UNITA movements battled for control of Angola. Each side
received significant outside assistance. The MPLA enjoyed
massive aid from the Soviet Union as well as combat
troops from Cuba. Early in the conflict, Zaire sent
troops to aid UNITA, while the United States (mostly
through the Central Intelligence Agency) sent weapons and
mercenaries. South Africa also aided UNITA with large
cross-border incursions. South Africa's involvement came
out of concern that a pro-Communist regime would aid
SWAPO rebels fighting for Namibia's independence from
South Africa. The war finally ended after the death of
UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi.
Civil War (1975-1992) -
Also known as the "Renamo War." The Renamo rebel group
attempted to overthrow the leftist government with aid
from Rhodesia and South Africa. The fighting ended in
1992, with a formal peace treaty ending the war signed in
Uprising [Namibia] (1999)
Rebels in the Caprivi region launched a guerrilla
uprising against the Namibian government.