1918: Finnish War of Independence- Finland declared
independence from Russia and sought help from Germany, who sent
13,000 troops to fight on the side of the Finns. This can be
considered a part of World War One.
1918: Kiel Mutiny -Mutiny by German Navy sailors on November 3,
1918. This event sparked the German Revolution.
1918-1919: German Revolution -Overthrow of the German monarchy.
This revolution effectively caused Germany to surrender to the
Allies and ended World War One.
German Communist Fighters in the German
1918-1919: Bavarian Revolution -Communist-led revolutionary
government seized power in the southern German state of Bavaria
(Nov. 7, 1918-May 3, 1919) suppressed by the government and the
Freikorps militias. These militias developed out of groups of
returning war veterans who sought to protect Germany from
left-wing forces such as the Bolsheviks, and also from losing more
territory to the Poles.
1919: Spartacist Revolt- Communist revolt in Berlin (Jan.
6-Jan. 15, 1919)-suppressed by the government and the Freikorps
militias. The suppression of this uprising marks the end of the
German Revolution. also known as the January uprising
1919-1920: Baltic Wars of Independence
Per the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (February, 1918), the defeated
Russian government ceded huge amounts of land in western Russia
(the Baltic States, Belorussia, and Ukraine) to Germany. With the
Armistice ending World War One signed on November 11, 1918, the
German forced in Russia were to return home, but also, per the
Armistice, were not to turn over land to the Bolshevik (Communist)
Russians. Many of the oppressed peoples in the occupied
territories (inlcuding Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania,
Finland, Ukraine), declared independence. Many of these
declarations resulted in wars, with German forces stuck in the
middle of several of these wars. The new German government allowed
German units help the non-Communist independence movements of
ethnic groups favored by the Germans (the Latvians and Finns in
particular) and also allowed various Freikorps detachments to act
independently to fight the communists as well.
The wars these various German Army and Freikorps units
participated in include:
1918-1920: Estonian War of Independence-Helped the Estonians
battle the Russian Red Army as well as Estonian communist forces
allied to the Russians.
1919-1920: Latvian War of Independence--Freikorps units at
first aided the Latvians battle the communists, but then joined
with a White Russian (non-communist Russians) against the Latvians
and Estonian allies of Latvia.
1919-1920: Lithuanian War of Independence--As in
Latvia, Freikorps units at first aided the Lithuanians battle
the communists, but then joined with a White Russian
(non-communist Russians) against the Lithuanians.
1920: Kapp Putsch--Failed military coup against the new German
government. The coup forces were led by Wolfgang Kapp, who sought
to overthrow the Weimar Government.
1921: Upper Silesia (Polish) Rebellion --German and Polish
militias fight prior to a vote on which nation gets the coal-rich
region of Silesia.
1923-1925: French and Belgian Occupation of the Ruhr
Valley---Germany fell behind in war payments to the Allies due to
the collapse of the German economy. France and Belgium invade and
occupy the industrial Ruhr Valley region of western Germany until
the re-payments are complete. (Jan. 11, 1923-August, 1925)
1923: Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch (Nov. 8-11, 1923)-War veteran
and political agitator, Adolf
Hitler led his National Socialist Party in an attempted
overthrow of the Bavarian government. The police crushed his
uprising, and Hitler was sentenced to prison. Upon his release, he
decided to win power through the electoral process. After gaining
power in 1933, Hitler then began rebuilding Germany's military and
set his nation on the road to World War Two.
Hitler during the Beer Hall Putsch in