Invasion of Ireland
Invasion of Ireland (1169-1171)--
Though this invasion was actually carried out by Norman and
Flemish troops under the command of the Earl of Pembroke, Richard
de Clare, who was also known as Strongbow, as de Clare was a
subject of the English/Norman King of England, this technically
was an invasion that brought Ireland (or at least the parts de
Clare conquered) under the power of the English crown.
Invasion of Ireland (1171-1175)--
Fearful that the Norman forces would set up a Norman kingdom
separate from the English crown, King Henry II of England landed
in Ireland with a large force in 1171 to take over the conquest
himself. The Treaty of Windsor in 1175 legally brought Ireland
into the Angevin (English) Empire. Due to the feudal nature of
England and Ireland, despite the treaty, several Norman knights
waged campaigns against the Irish lords, which created Norman
fiefdoms with the Norman lords running their new lands as virtual
kingdoms. However, as these Norman knights were pledged to the
English crown, their conquests, even though not approved by the
King, effectively expanded English rule in Ireland, to the
detriment of the Irish people. These unauthorized Norman campaigns
conquest of East Ulster (1177)--
The Norman knight John de Courcy took over large areas of
Ulster in northern Ireland.
Better known as Tyrone's Rebellion, in which Spain supplied a
small number of troops to help the Irish rebels fight the English,
with whom Spain was already at war against.
part of the larger English Civil War pitting the Royalists against
the Parliament, whose army was led by Oliver Cromwell.
Irishmen Revolt (1795-1797) -The
United Irishmen Revolt was a part of the larger world war
involving most of Europe against the revolutionary French
Republic. The Irish received some help from the French, but the
rebellion was put down savagely by the British General Gerard
War (1798-1803) --Wicklow
Mountains Guerilla Campaign led byMichael Dwyer, who continued to
fight the British after the failed 1798 Uprising.
Emmet Rebellion (1803)
Fenian Rising of 1867
against British rule in Ireland, organized by the Fenian
War (April 24, 1916) -Best
known as the Easter Rising.
War (1919-1921) -Best
known as the Irish War of Independence and also as the Anglo-Irish
Civil War, or as The Anglo-Irish War. At the conclusion of this
war, the southern counties of Ireland with Catholic majorities
gained independence as the Irish Free State, while the northern
counties with Protestant majorities chose to remain a part of the
United Kingdom, and became known as Northern Ireland.
Irish Republican Army "Sabotage Campaign" (1956-1962)
Campaign" or "England Campaign" was a bombing and sabotage
campaing by the IRA against the civil, economic, and military
infrastructure of the United Kingdom from 1939 to 1940, as Britain
was engaged in World War Two against Nazi Germany.
Irish Republican Army Border Campaign
raids against the British forces in Northern Ireland
guerrilla/terrorist conflict against the British and Northern
Ireland governments. Protestant militias and terrorist
organizations in Northern Ireland were also responsible for
significant violence against the Catholic minority.
Kohn, George C. Dictionary
New York: Facts On File Publications. 1986.