of the major governmental terms and types of government
are as follows:
- a condition of lawlessness or political disorder
brought about by the absence of governmental authority.
- a nation, state, or other political entity founded on
law and united by a compact of the people for the common
- a system of government in which the state plans and
controls the economy and a single - often authoritarian -
party holds power; state controls are imposed with the
elimination of private ownership of property or capital
while claiming to make progress toward a higher social
order in which all goods are equally shared by the people
(i.e., a classless society).
(Confederation) - a union by compact or treaty
between states, provinces, or territories, that creates a
central government with limited powers; the constituent
entities retain supreme authority over all matters except
those delegated to the central government.
- a government by or operating under an authoritative
document (constitution) that sets forth the system of
fundamental laws and principles that determines the
nature, functions, and limits of that government.
Democracy - a form of government in which the
sovereign power of the people is spelled out in a
Monarchy - a system of government in which a monarch
is guided by a constitution whereby his/her rights,
duties, and responsibilities are spelled out in written
law or by custom.
- a form of government in which the supreme power is
retained by the people, but which is usually exercised
indirectly through a system of representation and
delegated authority periodically renewed.
Republic - a state in which the supreme power rests
in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and
representatives responsible to them.
- a form of government in which a ruler or small clique
wield absolute power (not restricted by a constitution or
laws). Also, a system in which the citizens do not
possess the right to choose their own leaders.
- a government administrated by a church.
(Federative) - a form of government in which
sovereign power is formally divided - usually by means of
a constitution - between a central authority and a number
of constituent regions (states, colonies, or provinces)
so that each region retains some management of its
internal affairs; differs from a confederacy in that the
central government exerts influence directly upon both
individuals as well as upon the regional units.
Republic - a state in which the powers of the central
government are restricted and in which the component
parts (states, colonies, or provinces) retain a degree of
self-government; ultimate sovereign power rests with the
voters who chose their governmental representatives.
the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism developed in
China by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), which states that a
continuous revolution is necessary if the leaders of a
communist state are to keep in touch with the people.
- the political, economic, and social principles espoused
by 19th century economist Karl Marx; he viewed the
struggle of workers as a progression of historical forces
that would proceed from a class struggle of the
proletariat (workers) exploited by capitalists (business
owners), to a socialist "dictatorship of the
proletariat," to, finally, a classless society -
- an expanded form of communism developed by Lenin
from doctrines of Karl Marx; Lenin saw imperialism as the
final stage of capitalism and shifted the focus of
workers' struggle from developed to underdeveloped
- a government in which the supreme power is lodged in
the hands of a monarch who reigns over a state or
territory, usually for life and by hereditary right; the
monarch may be either a sole absolute ruler or a
sovereign - such as a king, queen, or prince - with
constitutionally limited authority.
- a government in which control is exercised by a small
group of individuals whose authority generally is based
on wealth or power.
Democracy - a political system in which the
legislature (parliament) selects the government - a prime
minister, premier, or chancellor along with the cabinet
ministers - according to party strength as expressed in
elections; by this system, the government acquires a dual
responsibility: to the people as well as to the
Government (Cabinet-Parliamentary government) - a
government in which members of an executive branch (the
cabinet and its leader - a prime minister, premier, or
chancellor) are nominated to their positions by a
legislature or parliament, and are directly responsible
to it; this type of government can be dissolved at will
by the parliament (legislature) by means of a no
confidence vote or the leader of the cabinet may dissolve
the parliament if it can no longer function.
monarchy - a state headed by a monarch who is not
actively involved in policy formation or implementation
(i.e., the exercise of sovereign powers by a monarch in a
ceremonial capacity); true governmental leadership is
carried out by a cabinet and its head - a prime minister,
premier, or chancellor - who are drawn from a legislature
- a representative democracy in which the people's
elected deputies (representatives), not the people
themselves, vote on legislation.
- a government in which the means of planning, producing,
and distributing goods is controlled by a central
government that theoretically seeks a more just and
equitable distribution of property and labor; in
actuality, most socialist governments have ended up being
no more than dictatorships over workers by a ruling
- similar to a monarchy, but a government in which the
supreme power is in the hands of a sultan (the head of a
Muslim state); the sultan may be an absolute ruler or a
sovereign with constitutionally limited authority.
- a form of government in which a Deity is recognized as
the supreme civil ruler, but the Deity's laws are
interpreted by ecclesiastical authorities (bishops,
mullahs, etc.); a government subject to religious
- a government that seeks to subordinate the individual
to the state by controlling not only all political and
economic matters, but also the attitudes, values, and
beliefs of its population.
CIA World Factbook