Ethiopia-Oromo Conflicts (1800's-Present)

Ethiopia-Oromo Conflicts—(1800s- Present):

Ethiopia is a nation made up of many different ethnic groups, one of which is the Oromo people. Ever since Emperor Menelik II used European weapons and tactics to conquer the Oromo in eastern and southern Ethiopia, a nearly continuous struggle has taken place. The Oromo make up about one-third of Ethiopia's 110 million people.The Oromo Liberation Front waged a long guerrilla war against the Ethiopian government, and at one point in the 2000s accepted aid from Ethiopia's border foe, Eritrea and rom the Aideed faction in Somalia's ongoing civil wars. The OLF is also allied with the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) in Eastern Ethiopia. The long-term goal of the OLF was independence, but eventually changed goals to seek more autonomy and an active role in national politics.

In 2018, the OLF signed a peace deal with the Ethiopian government. Also in 2018, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, an ethnic Oromo, was elected. However, violent clashes between Oromo and Somalis in Ethiopia have caused hundreds of deaths since 2016, and, in July, 2020, the murder of popular singer and Oromo activist Hachalu Hundessa has led to protests and riots that have killed hundreds in Addis Ababa.

PRIMARY NAME OF WAR OR CONFLICT
DATES OF CONFLICT
TYPE OF INTERNAL CONFLICT
NATIONS OR GROUPS INVOLVED IN THE CONFLICT

Abyssinian (Ethiopian) Conquest of the Oromo

Late 1800's -Early 1900's

Colonial Conquest

Abyssinia (Ethiopia) vs. Oromo tribes and confederations.

Rebellion against Haile Selassie

?-1935

Ethnic Rebellion

Ethiopian Government vs. Oromo Rebels

Oromo Resistance to Italian Invasion

1935?-1941

Colonial War

Italy vs. Ethiopia and Oromo Ethnic Group

 

Oromo Revolt

1941?

Ethnic Rebellion

Ethiopian Government and Great Britain vs. Oromo Rebels

Bale guerrilla movement

1963-1972

Ethnic/Guerrilla Rebellion

Ethiopian Government vs. Oromo Rebels

OLF War (1973-2018)

1973-2018

Ethnic/Guerrilla Rebellion

Ethiopian Government vs. Oromo Liberation Front (OLF). A peace agreement was signed in 2018.

Oromo-Somali Ethnic Clashes in Ethiopia

2016-Present

Ethnic Clashes

Hundreds have died in fighting between Ethiopia's Oromo and Somali groups

Ethnic Oromo Regions in Ethiopia Map

(Oromo areas in RED)

 

 

 

PREDECESSOR: (Related conflicts and events that occurred before)
Somali Border Wars with Ethiopia and Kenya (1964-1967)

Oromo Insurgency in Ethiopia (1973-Present)

Ogaden War (1977-1978)

Somali Civil War (1990-Present)

 

CONCURRENT: (Related conflicts occurring at the same time)

Oromo Insurgency in Ethiopia (1973-Present)

Global War on Terror (2001-Present)

Ethiopian Intervention in Somalia (2006-2020)  

Ogaden rebels destroy Ethiopian military convoy en route to Somalia--Sunday December 24, 2006

Ethiopia denies Ogaden blockade --BBC, August 2, 2007

Ethiopian Intervention in Somalia --Wikipedia article

Central, Eastern, & Southern Africa Database : Somalia, 1980-1996--By Court Chick & Albert Grandolini, with Tom Cooper & Sander Peeters--Sept. 2, 2003

Oromo Liberation Front Website

Ogaden rebels destroy Ethiopian military convoy en route to Somalia--Sunday December 24, 2006

Central, Eastern, & Southern Africa Database : Somalia, 1980-1996--By Court Chick & Albert Grandolini, with Tom Cooper & Sander Peeters--Sept. 2, 2003

Oromo people struggle for independence--By Jaraa Aba Sabaa, in Green Left Weekly, 6 May, 1996.
 
Ethnologue: Languages of the World: Ethiopia--A listing of the many ethnic groups within Ethiopia.

Somaliland: From Clan Dictatorship To Self-Determination--An article about the breakaway nation of Somaliland. Contains good background information regarding Horn of Africa conflicts and history since the 1960's.

Somaliland: Fiercely Independent--Article from the African-American Institute.


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