Wars of the Horn of Africa:

Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Somalia

Somali "Mad Mullah" Jihad (1899-1905)--Somali tribesmen led by religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd Allah Hasan waged a desert guerrilla war against Britain, Italy and Ethiopia. Following repeated defeats by the Somalis, the colonial powers offered him territory in Italian Somaliland in exchange for peace. He resumed his war in 1908 and harassed the occupiers of his country until 1920.

Eritrean War of Independence (1962-1991)- Fought against Ethiopia. Also considered to be the First Eritrean-Ethiopian War.

Somali Border Wars with Ethiopia and Kenya (1964-1967)

Oromo Insurgency [Ethiopia] (1973?-Present)

Ogaden War (1977-1978)- Ethiopia against Somalia and Somali rebels in the Ogaden desert area. The Soviet Union and Cuba also involved on Ethiopia's side. Can be considered a part of the Cold War.

Eritrean Islamic Jihad (EIJ) Insurgency

Somali Civil War (1990-Present)

Yemen-Eritrea Border Conflict (1996)

Second Eritrea-Ethiopia War (1998-2000) -With the first war between Eritrea and Ethiopia being the long Eritrean War of Independence, this second war over the disputed border resulted in tens of thousands of deaths on both sides, and, while major combat ended with a truce in 2000, the actual peace treaty ending official hostilities was not signed until September of 2018. The border area remained unchanged.

Ethiopian Intervention in Somali Civil War (2006-2008)- The long-standing Somali Civil War (1988-Present) entered a new phase with the growth of the Union of Islamic Courts, an Islamic militant group, gained control of Mogadishu and the central part of Somali. The UIC is in opposition to the official, yet weak, government based in Baidoa. In late 2006, Ethiopia sent troops to Baidoa to support the government against the Islamic forces. In late December, 2006, Ethiopian planes bombed the Mogadishu airport and ground troops seized control of three towns, including one on the border. Ethiopian forces then launched a full campaign against the Islamic Union Courts, seized Mogadishu and put the Transitional government into power. The Islamist forces continued to fight as guerrillas into 2007.

Somali Pirate Attacks (2007-Present)--New pirate scourge hits the Somali coast.

Links and Resources:

The War for the Horn of Africa--Time.com

Ogaden War, 1977-1978

WHY OGADEN WAR?--Global Security.org

HORN OF AFRICA: Armed factions and the Ethiopia-Eritrea conflict


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