Political Unrest in Egypt Timeline
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Political Unrest in Egypt Timeline
The violent and widespread protests against the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak began in January, 2011. As of January 31st, at least 102 people died and nearly 2,000 injured since protests began. Below is a timeline of events in Egypt since Abdou Abdel-Monaam Hamadah set himself on fire outside parliament in an act of protest.
January 17: A 50-year-old man sets himself on fire outside parliament, ina copycat act of protest as the suicide of a young Tunisian in mid-December, which began the uprising that overthrew Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. The man was Abdou Abdel-Monaam Hamadah, a 48-year-old owner of a small restaurant from Qantara, an area close to the Suez Canal city of Ismailia east of Cairo. He was protesting government policy on bread coupons.
January 18: A 25-year-old unemployed man dies after setting himself on fire in the northern city of Alexandria. A second man, a lawyer in his forties, sets himself on fire outside government headquarters in Cairo.
January 20: Two Egyptians injured setting fire to themselves.
January 24: Leading opposition figure Mohamed ElBaradei says opponents of Egypt's long-running regime should be able to follow the lead set by the toppling of Tunisia's president.
January 25: Anti-government demonstrations take place in which several thousand people take to the streets in several Egyptian cities. Two demonstrators are killed in Suez after clashes with police. In Cairo a police officer is beaten to death by protesters.- The night of the 25th, police fire tear gas at thousands of protesters in central Cairo who are demanding political reforms and an end to President Mubarak's regime
January 26: Thousands of people demonstrate in Egyptian towns, in open defiance of a strict ban on demonstrations. Egyptian police fire tear gas at the protesters.- In Cairo a protester and a policeman die in street clashes.
- In Suez, 55 demonstrators and 15 police officers are injured in clashes.
Egyptian army troops on the streets of Cairo January 28, 2011 trying to stop protesters.
January 27: Security forces enter central Cairo in large numbers. Hundreds of protesters clash with police in the cities of Suez and Ismailiya.- A man is shot dead by police in the Sinai town of Sheikh Zuwayed.
- The White House warns both the Mubarak's government and the protesters that they have an "obligation" to avoid violence. The European Union calls on Egypt to respect the right to protest.
-Opposition figure Mohamed ElBaradei returns to Egypt.
January 28: Anti-regime protests show a dramatic increase after Friday prayers. In Cairo, riot police fire tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse tens of thousands of protesters. In Suez, a protester is killed, while in Alexandria government buildings are torched.-- The Egyptian government causes Internet services go down in order to prevent protesters using social media to plan and coordinate anti-government events.
- -Nobel laureate Mohamed ElBaradei joins at least 2,000 people in Friday prayers in Cairo, a day after returning home and saying he is ready to "lead the transition."
- -President Hosni Mubarak imposes a dusk-to-dawn curfew and orders the army to assist the embattled police in enforcing the curfew.
-- The United States, Britain and Germany express concern about the violence, with Britain saying the protesters had "legitimate grievances."
-- Protesters set fire to the headquarters of the ruling National Democratic Party in Cairo.
--President Hosni Mubarak orders night-time curfew in main cities, addresses nation saying he has dismissed government and will appoint a new cabinet on Saturday.
--American President Obama calls President Mubarak after making his (Obama's) speech, telling him he must give meaning to his pledges to provide better economic and democratic opportunities to the Egyptian people.
January 29: In Beni Suef, south of Cairo, 17 protesters were shot dead by Egyptian police as they attempted to attack two police stations in the city. Eight more people were killed during protests in the city. In the Abu Zabaal prison in Cairo, eight people were killed as police clashed with inmates trying to escape.
January 30: Anti-regime protests continue.--Egyptian Air Force planes circle Tahrir Square
--The Egyptian governement orders the offices of Al-Jazeera closed.
--Mohammed ElBaradei spoke to the crowd in Tahrir Square and said "what we have begun cannot go back," and, "You are the owners of this revolution. You are the future. Our key demand is the departure of the regime and the beginning of a new Egypt in which each Egyptian lives in virtue, freedom and dignity."
--Massive prison escapes were reported, suppossedly after guards in several prisons simultaneously left their posts. Reports indicated that 31 leaders of the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood were among the escapees.
February 1: President Mubarak appeared on television, declaring that he will not stand for re-election in the September elections, and will step down at the end of his current term. Demonstrators did not accept this and demanded he leave immediately.
February 2: Pro-Mubarak demonstrators attacked the anti-Mubarak protesters in Tahrir Square, with many on both sides injured.
February 11 : After 18 days of protests and riots, President Hosni Mubarak turned power over to the Egyptian military, and left Cairo.
Violence escalates in Cairo square--al-Jazeera, Feb. 2, 2011
Energized protesters press for 'freedom,' revel in making history--CNN, Jan. 29, 2011
Montreal Gazette--January 28, 2011
As It Happened: Egypt Unrest On Friday--BBC, January 28, 2011
Egypt protests: military deploys as sun sets to enforce curfew on country's burning streets--The Telegraph, Jan. 28, 2011
How Did Egypt Shut Down the Entire Internet? --Slatest, Jan. 28, 2011
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Modern Egyptian Political and Military History:1882-British Conquest of Egypt.
1922-British declare the independence of Egypt. British still retained control of Egyptian foreign policy and basic administration of the country.
1948-1949-War with Israel in the First Arab-Israeli War. Egypt gains control of the Gaza Strip.
1952-Egyptian Revolution of 1952. King Farouk overthown by Lieutenant General Muhammad Naguib and Gamel Abdel Nasser. Naguib becomes Egypt's first President.
1954-Nasser becomes Prime Minister and effectively rules Egypt with President Naguib as a figurehead.
1956 (June)-Nasser becomes President of Egypt. His philosophy of Pan-Arab cooperation, nationalism, and unity becomes known as "Nasserism."
1956 (July)-The United States pulls back from its promise to aid Egypt in building the Aswan Dam project. Nasser turns to the Soviet Union for aid, beginning a long and vital alliance between Egypt and the Soviets.
1956 (October-November)-War with Israel, Britain, and France in the "Suez War."
1962-1970-Egypt intervened in the Yemen Civil War. This intervention brought Egypt into conflict with Saudi Arabia.
1967-War with Israel. In the Six-Day War, Israel defeated Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq, and siezed control of the Egyptian-controlled Gaza Strip and Egypt's Sinai Peninsula.
1968-1970-War with Israel in the War of Attrition
1970- Nasser dies, and Vice-President Anwar al-Sadat becomes President of Egypt.
1973- War with Israel. The Yom Kippur/Ramadan War paves the way for eventual peace negotiations to take place.
1974-First Sinai Disengagement Agreement between Egypt an Israel. Israel pulled back from part of the Sinai. This agreement was, in effect, the first land-for-peace agreement between Israel and an Arab neighbor.
1977 (January)--Egyptian 'Bread Riots' against economic reforms. Nearly 80 deaths, and 800 wounded.
1977 (July)-Short border war with Libya.
1977 (November)-Sadat goes to Jerusalem and is the first Arab leader to visit Israel. Sadat spoke before the Knesset in Jerusalem about how to achieve a comprehensive peace between Israel and the Arab nations.
1978-Egypt and Israel sign the Camp David Accords. There were two accords, titled A Framework for Peace in the Middle East and A Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel. The Accords set the stage for the 1979 peace treaty.
1979-Egypt and Israel sign the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty, ending the state of war that had existed since 1948.
1979-Egypt is expelled from the Arab League for making peace with Israel.
1981-Assassination of President Sadat. Vice-President Hosni Mubarak assumes power.
1989-Egypt readmitted to the Arab League.
1991-War with Iraq. Egypt took part in the multi-national coalition that drove Iraqi forces from Kuwait in the Gulf War.
2011-Massive unrest takes place throughout Egypt with opposition groups calling for the ouster of President Mubarak, who leaves office in February of 2011.
Pages on Middle Eastern and Arab Military History