to view a particular set of conflicts. Under each set of conflicts, (
for example, "Wars
of the United States"),
you will find more blue links leading to pages devoted to each
individual conflict. Most links are not yet active.
Page Format: the format used for these lists is fairly simple. If a
conflict can be broken up into one or more component parts, the
secondary wars are listed below the primary war and are indented to
show they "belong" to it.
Indochina War (1956-1975)
(1964-1973)--The "advisory" phase of U.S. involvement goes from
1956 to 1964, and then resumes from 1973 to 1975. The years
1964 to 1973 refer to the period of "official" combat
deployment of U.S. forces in the war.
Civil War (1970-1975)
Civil War (1960-1975)
example, the wars in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are all considered to
be part of the larger "Second Indochina War." The blue link signifies
a separate page exists for this war.
This page is a work in progress, and as such, the format and contents
will change from time to time. The current categories originate out
of my own personal curiosity regarding how wars fit together as part
of an ongoing historical process. For example, under my category of
"Anglo-French Wars" you will find many conflicts which were truly
multi-national conflicts, rather than simply wars between England and
France. Let's look at the Wars of the French Revolution as an
illustration of this concept. While the English were one of France's
primary foes in these wars, by no means were they the only ones.
Russia, Prussia, Austria and many others combined to fight France.
These wars are placed in the Anglo-French category as an illustration
of their placement in the pattern of wars between those two
countries. As this page grows, I will include Franco-Russian Wars,
Franco-Austrian Wars, Franco-Prussian Wars, and other pairings. Each
of these categories will include a sub-section on the French
Revolutionary Wars, just as there is for the Anglo-French
last note: The names of some categories, such as "Wars of the United
States", are merely to show what wars the U.S. has fought. This title
is not to imply that conflicts such as World War 2 were entirely an
American conflict. For example, "Wars
show wars fought by those nations.
of the Hapsburg Empire (Austria Hungary) from 1815 to
of 1848 (1848-1849)-Austrian
government and Russia against anti-monarchist rebels and Czech and
Hungarian nationalist rebels. The revolutionary fervor also led to
War of Independence (1848-1849)
War of Independence (1848-1849)-Italian
revolutionaries in Venice, along with the Italian States of
Piedmont, Naples and, briefly, Papal State fought against the
Austrian Hapsburg Empire. The Italian forces were divided and
defeated by August of 1849.
and Piedmont against the Austrian Hapsburg Empire.
and Prussia crushed Denmark.
Seven Weeks' War (1866)-Italy
and Prussia against the Austrian Hapsburg Empire.
and internationally accepted occupation of Slavic region
previously controlled by the Turks. Beginning of prolonged tension
with Russia and Serbia. Leading factor in the outbreak of World
War I (1914-1918)--Last
war of the Hapsburg Empire.
of the Russian Empire from 1815 to 1918
Conquest of Central Asia and the Far East (Ongoing)
defeated Persia and acquired parts of Armenia.
defeated the Ottoman Turks. Related to the
War of Independence.
Poland rebelled and was crushed. Inspired by
France, the Ottoman Empire and Sardinia against
Polish Revolution (1863-1864)-Poland
rebels waged a mostly guerrilla war. Rebellion
by Turkish problems with Slavic Balkan states. Treaty of San
Stefano guaranteed independence from Turkey for Serbia,
Montenegro, Rumania and autonomy for Bulgaria. Russia received
land in the Caucasus region.
Britain, France, Germany, Russia, the United States, Japan, Italy,
and Austria-Hungary against "Boxer" rebels in China as well as
against the Chinese government. Gave Russia an opportunity to
occupy Manchuria, which led in part to the
soundly defeated by Japan.
Revolution of 1905 (1905-1906)-Popular
uprising against the Czarist government. Harshly suppressed by the
War I (1914-1918)-Last
war of the Czarist Russian Empire prior to the Bolshevik
Wars In Italy
This series of wars, part of the ongoing Hapsburg-Valois
repeated French invasions of Italy, which at the time consisted of
several smaller states and kingdoms. Italy was really little more
than a battleground for the two most powerful empires in Europe at
that time: France and the Hapsburg Empire, which controlled Austria,
Spain, the Netherlands and other areas.
between England (also known as Great Britain or the United Kingdom),
Invasion of England, (1066)-William
the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy and a vassal of the French king,
conquered the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England, and made himself
King of England. Resulting from this, the English and French royal
families would fight many bloody wars trying to settle who was
supposed to rule what. William's family acquired lands throughout
France and ruled them as Englishmen, which really upset the French
kings. This is a pretty watered-down, basic description of this
rivalry, but these two nations have fought many, many wars, and
William's conquest of England was the starting point for many of
the earlier ones.
Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)-The
Hundred Years' War was actually a series of wars between England
and France which lasted 116 years. Most historians break this
conflict into four distinct wars.
War, (1488) -Also
known as Henry VII's Invasion of Brittany (a region in NW
War, (1489-1492) -Also
known as Henry VII's Second Invasion of Brittany.
known as the War of the Holy League, England joined with the Pope,
several Italian states, Swiss cantons and Spain against France.
King Henry VIII of England won a favorable peace from France after
winning the Battle of the Spurs on August 16, 1513. The rest of
the Holy League continued fighting France until the Pope Julius
II's death, which helped cause the dissolution of the
VIII joined the Hapsburg Empire in a war against France. The war
proved unpopular in England and expensive financially, and the
King had difficulty raising money from Parliament. After 1523,
England did not participate much in the war.
VIII again joined the Hapsburg Empire in a war against France. The
English captured the port of Boulogne and the French had to accept
that seizure when the peace treaty was signed. The war cost
England two million English pounds.
King Henry II declared war with the intention of retaking
Boulogne, which fell to him in 1550. This war was preceded by
years of border combat short of all-out war.
Queen Mary drew her country into war allied to Spain , whose king
was her husband. A very unpopular war with the English people.
England lost possession of Calais on the French mainland. When
Queen Elizabeth later took the throne, religious and political
differences would make England and Spain bitter
was caught up in the great Protestant-Catholic wars sweeping
Europe. England sided with Protestant Dutch rebels against
Catholic Spain and with the Protestant (Huguenot) French against
the Catholic French in the Wars of Religion, a series of French
religious civil wars. In 1589, while still fighting Spain after
defeating the famous Spanish Armada, Elizabeth sent troops to aid
the French Protestants.
known in France as the Third Bearnese Revolt, England came to the
aid of Huguenot rebels fighting the French
in Europe as the War of the League of Augsburg AND as the War of
the Grand Alliance. In North America the colonial aspect of the
conflict was known as King William's War.
in Europe as the War of the Spanish Succession, in North America
as Queen Anne's War and in India as the First Carnatic War. This
conflict also included the Second Abnaki War. The Abnaki Indian
tribe allied itself with the French against the English colonists
in North America.
in Europe as the War of the Austrian Succession and in North
America as King George's War.
in India as the Second Carnatic War. The British East India
Company and its Indian allies battled the French East India
Company and its Indian allies.
in Europe as the Seven Years' War and in North America as the
French and Indian War. France forever lost possession of
Quebec/Canada. In many ways, England's victory set the stage for
the American Revolution.
known as the American
Also involved Spain, the United States and the Netherlands against
Britain. Can also be considered as an
of the French Revolution,
Wars of the French Revolution spanned a decade of great political,
social and military change throughout the European continent.
After the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, the
conservative, monarchical powers of Europe attempted to extinguish
the new French Republic and restore the Bourbon Royal Family. When
several nations combined against France, the alliances were known
as "Coalitions". Thus, this series of wars are known as the Wars
of the Coalitions.
Invasion of France, (1792)-In
support of the deposed, but still living French King Louis XVI,
Austria and Prussia invaded France. French Revolutionary armies
defeated the Allies at Valmy and Jemappes and conquered
Austrian-ruled Belgium. France also defeated Austrian forces in
northern Italy, seizing Savoy and Nice. Can also be considered
as a Franco-Austrian
of the First Coalition,
Austria, Prussia, Spain, Russia, Sardinia and Holland combined
to fight Revolutionary France. Can also be considered as a
Franco-Prussian War, a
Franco-Russian War, Anglo-French War, and a Franco-Sardinian
left the Coalition in 1794 to deal with troubles in Poland.
French victories forced Holland, also known then as the
Batavian Republic, to leave the Coalition in 1795. Prussia and
Spain made peace with France in 1795 and Austria signed the
Treaty of Campo-Formio in 1798, surrendering the Austrian
Netherlands (now Belgium) to France.
war included the battles of Neerwinden, Mainz, Kaiserlautern
(early Allied victories). Later, as the Revolutionary
government organized the populace and fielded huge "citizen
armies" commanded by brilliant young generals like Napoleon
Bonaparte, the French won many battlefield
of the Second Coalition,
Austria, Russia, Portugal, Naples and the Ottoman Empire
(Turkey) combined to fight Revolutionary France. Spain later
joined France against Portugal. Can also be considered as a
Franco-Neapolitian War ,a
This alliance against France formed to counter French moves in
Italy; formation of the Roman, Ligurian, Cisalpine and Helvetic
Republics in Switzerland and Italy, and the deposition of Papal
rule in Rome. Naples was conquered by the French in early 1799
and declared to be the new Parthenopean
the Coalition war began, France intervened in an internal
revolt in the Swiss Confederation.
Swiss Revolt of 1798, (1798) ended
with the Swiss Confederation dissolved and the Helvetic
Republic in its place. Throughout the rest of the French
Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, the Swiss were effectively
under French rule with an army of occupation in place.
Bonaparte invaded Turkish Egypt and won the Battle of the
Pyramids, continuing his march into what is now Israel and
Lebanon. British Admiral Horatio Nelson wiped out the French
fleet at the Battle of the Nile in 1798. Due to French
victories on land against both Turkish and British troops, the
Ottoman Empire made peace with France at the Convention of
El-Arish in 1800.
of this Coalition war is the so-called
of the Oranges (1801), in
which France and Spain invaded Portugal. France sought to end
Portugal's trade with Britain, and Spain sought Portuguese
territory. In the Peace of Badajoz, Portugal promised to end
trade with Britain, give land to Spain, and part of Brazil to
France. This "Brazilian" land is the modern-day French
war included the battles of Cassano, Tribbia River and Novi (early
Allied victories). Following Russian withdrawal from the war due
to quarrels with Austria, the French under First Consul Bonaparte
won the Battle of Marengo in 1800. The Coalition collapsed after
Austria lost the Battle of Hohenlinden in December, 1800 and
signed the Peace of Luneville in February, 1801.
is the internal Indian conflict involving Pakistan. (See
of India (post-independence)
Indo-Pakistan War (1948-1949)--Also
known as the First
of Hyderabad (1948)--Also
known in India as "Operation Polo."
of Goa (1961)--A
conflict between India and Portugal. Goa had been a Portuguese
colony for centuries prior to the Indian invasion of 1961. Also
known in India as "Operation Vijay."
war between China and India.
Nations Offensive Operations in the Congo
contributed troops to the UN army which undertook offensive
action against rebels in the Congo.
Indo-Pakistan War (1965)--Also
known as the Second
known as the Chola "Incident."
Indo-Pakistan War/Bengali War of Independence
attacked Pakistan in support of rebels seeking the independence
of Bangladesh (then known as East Pakistan) from
border dispute (1979?-Present?)
rebellion in the Sikh-dominated Punjab region culminated in the
bloody Battle at the Golden Temple in June of 1984. Follow-up
operations in the countryside continued into 1989. India claims
the Sikh rebels were backed by Pakistan.
Siachen Glacier is one of the highest glaciers in the world,
and it sits astride the demarcation line between India's and
Pakistan's claims in Jammu and Kashmir. Since the mid-'80's,
artillery and infantry battles have broken out along this
stretch of the border. These battles are related to the ongoing
Revolt (see below).
Intervention in Sri Lankan Civil War
intervened in the bloody Sri Lankan Civil War (which continues
into 2000) in support of the Sinhalese majority-dominated
government. After suffering heavy casualties and realizing that
this was a conflict best left to the Sri Lankans, India removed
her troops in 1990.
Intervention in the Maldives
intervened to save the government of the Maldives Islands from
a takeover by Sri Lankan rebels.
is the internal Indian conflict involving Pakistan and
Pakistani-supported Kashmir rebels.
Border War (1984-2000)-Also
involved Syria , the PLO and Lebanese militia's such as
First Intifada (Dec.
uprising by the Palestinians in the territories occupied by
Israel in the 1967 War. This conflict concluded with the Oslo
Accords, which set up a timetable for Palestinian nationhood
and called for the establishment of the Palestinian Authority,
with PLO Chairman Yassir Arafat as President.
attacked Israel with Scud Missiles.
Second Intifada (Sept.
urban guerrilla/terrorist conflict between the Palestinians and
Israel. Marked by suicide bombings, recurring Israeli invasions
of Palestinian cities and Palestinian guerrilla attacks on
Isreaeli settlements and military targets.
Yemen Civil War (1966-1968)-Also
involved Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
Rebellion in Oman (1960's-1970's)-Also
involved Iran and Britain.
Civil War (1970)-Also
involved Syria and the PLO.
Civil War (1975-1990)-Also
involved Israel, Syria and the PLO.
North and South Yemen.
Persian Gulf War (1980-1988)-Iran
vs. Iraq-also involved U.S. and Kuwait.
Tanker War" (1987-1988)-This
is the component of the First Persian Gulf War that involved
the U.S. and Kuwait. In an attempt to halt Kuwaiti aid for
Iraq, as well as Iraqi oil sales and deliveries, Iran attacked
oil tankers in the Gulf. The U.S. stepped in to protect the
Kuwaiti ships and became engaged in combat with Iran's Navy and
Revolutionary Guards. Also known by the U.S. code-name
"Operation Earnest Will."
Laden's War (1998-Present)
-Terrorist conflict between the United States and irregular forces
led by Osama bin Laden. The violence has also involved Kenya,
Tanzania, Sudan, Yemen and Afghanistan.
Persian Gulf War(2003)-The
second major war between the United States-led coalition and the
Middle Eastern nation of Iraq. Military members of the coalition
also include the United Kingdom and Australia.
rebellion by the Shiite Zaidiyyah sect in northern Yemen against
the governement of Yemen.
between the Lebanese government and a Jihadist Palestinian militia
calling itself Fatah al-Islam.
Islamic State War
also known as ISIS or ISIL, is an Islamic Jihadist group that
evolved out of al-Qaida in Iraq. It currently controls significant
portions of Iraq and Syria, and is also conducting operations in
Libya, Egypt, Yemen, and other areas of the Middle East. It is
currently at war with a large coalition of Western and Middle
Eastern nations including the United States, Britain, France,
Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Egypt, and several
United States invaded Mexico and forced the Mexicans to cede the
northern half of the country and also to give up any claim to
Indian War (1899-1904?)--One
of the last of the long series of Mexican-Indian Wars, this
conflict began when chiefs of the eight principal Yaqui Indian
tribes demand Mexican withdrawal from the Sinaloa
(1994- Present)--A rebel group calling itself the Zapatista
National Liberation Army (EZLN) began a revolt on New Year's Day
1994. Little fighting has taken place since 1994. The government
and the Zapatistas engage in negotiations and public relations
battles rather than combat, though several massacres have
wars to be added later.
of West Africa
rebels against the French and Spanish colonial powers. France and
Spain crushed the insurgents in 1958
Rebellion against the newly independent government of Cameroon by
the Cameroon People's Union, a pro-Communist group. French forces
aided the government in defeating the rebels.
Rebellion in Mali (1962-1964)-Conflict
between Tuareg Berbers in the north and the Black dominated
government of newly-independent Mali. The Tuareg
and Cape Verde Islands War of Independence
Fought against Portugal.
Civil War aka "Biafra War" (1967-1970)
Invasion of Guinea (Nov. 1970)-Mercenaries
supported by Portugal attacked the Guinea government. Nigeria and
United Arab Republic (Egypt) sent troops to help
and Mauritania against the Polisario Front. Mauritania left the
war in 1978.
Marxist Coup Attempt (1981)-Insurgents
seized the capital in July. Order restored with the aid of troops
Rebellion in Senegal (1980's-Present)
Rebellion in Mali (1990-1995)-Conflict
between Tuareg Berbers in the north and the Black dominated
Black Rebellion in Mauritania
race riots in 1989, the African Liberation Forces of Mauritania
(FLAM) took up arms against the Arab-dominated
Civil War (1991?-1997?)-also
involved the Nigerian-led ECOMOG peacekeeping
Civil War (1999)--Rebels
launched an invasion of Liberia from neighboring Guinea. Civil war
resumed in Liberia after this attack.
Coast Civil War (2002)--Rebels
from the army, mostly Muslim, launched an attempted coup in
September, 2002. The government survived the initial attacks,
though subsequent fighting left the mostly Muslim northern part of
the country in rebel hands.
Rebellion in Mali (2007-2009)-Conflict
between Tuareg Berbers in the north and the Black dominated
government of Mali.
Rebellion in Mali (2012)-This
latest Tuareg rebellion began in January, 2012, with the return to
Mali of several thousand Tuareg mercenaries from Libya, where they
served in the Libyan forces of Colonel Muammar Gadaffi. Following
the Libyan War of 2011, in which Gadaffi was overthrown and
killed, the Tuareg mercenaries crossed the Sahara from Libya and
returned home to northern Mali with large quantities of heavy
weapons. They began their rebellion against the Mali government in
January, and completed their liberation of the Tuareg homeland in
Disputes of West Africa (short of full-fledged war)
Faso (formerly Upper Volta) Dispute
instances of armed clashes, the most serious being a four-day
battle in Dec. 1985. The World Court mediated and divided the 100
mile-long, 12-mile wide Agacher Strip.
dispute erupted into armed clashes in April and May, 1990. Each
side supported neighbor's rebel movements.
riots (Black vs. Arab), erupted on both sides of the border in
1989. Artillery fire exchanged in Jan. of 1990. Each nation
accuses the other of mistreatment of minorities and of support for
each other's rebel groups. Senegal seeks border
dispute over the oil-rich Bakassi region. A cease-fire agreement
was signed in 1996, but each side accuses the other of numerous
violations. In 1998, 221 prisoners of war were repatriated. In
2002, the World Court awarded the land to Cameroon.
of East Africa
(1898?-1899?)--Native Ugandan troops mutinied against their
colonial British officers, causing difficulty for British forces
fighting Mahdist forces in the Sudan.
Fought against British colonial rule.