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The 2007 Pro-Democracy Uprising in Burma/Myanmar
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The 2007 Pro-Democracy Uprising in Burma/Myanmar

The nation of Myanmar (called Burma until the military government changed the name to Myanmar in 1989), has been in a state of civil war since shortly after independence from Britain in 1948. Most of the historical fighting has involved ethnic rebellions and communist uprisings in the countryside, but in 1988, a pro-democracy movement challenged the military dictatorship and was crushed violently by the army. This is now called the "Four Eights" or 8888 Uprising. In late 2007, a new, so-far peaceful anti-government uprising led by Buddhist monks has been met with violence from government security forces. The military junta which rules Myanmar/Burma calls itself the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The commanders of the service branches and of the regional military commands make up the Council.

It should be noted that the current involvement of the Buddhist monks in the 2007 protests harkens back to the long-running resistance to the British conquest and occupation of Burma in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Many of the protests against British rule were led by Buddhist monks, so the current monk-led protests are part of a tradition of Burmese/Myanmar popular action to unpopular and repressive regimes.

The current protests have their immediate genesis in a governement-mandated rise in gasoline prices, which hit the average citizen hard. The price increases made daily life for the population more difficult, with the cost of public transportation increasing, and a subsequent rise in the prices of necessities such as rice and cooking oil. It should also be noted that these price increases came a few months after a video of the opulent wedding ceremony for the daughter of one of the military dictators became public. Most Burmese are very poor, and the extravagance of the leader's family wedding grated on many people.

On August 19, 2007, about 400 people marched in protest. The police arrested dozens, but protests continued in several cities. Keep in mind that the last major public protests, in 1988, resulted in the military crushing the protests, with nearly 3,000 dead and thousands more arrested or driven into exile.

Buddhist monks, respected and honored in this Buddhist country, became involved in the protests after police injured several people while breaking up a rally in the city of Pakokku on September 5.

More protests broke out, with thousands marching in Rangoon on September 24.

Protests on September 28 were broken up by the authorities, with soldiers shooting into crowds, killing at least nine, and perhaps more, according to witnesses.

The government also cut off the country's internet connections, making it difficult, though not impossible, for citizens to send pictures and video of the violence to the world.

 

What is China's role?

Myanmar's only true ally is its northern neighbor, China, which is also a dictatorship with a history of crushing peaceful pro-democracy movements. Officially, China is urging calm, but it is believed that the Chinese government is privately urging the Myanmar government to stop the protests.

 

Chronology:

Aug. 15--Government raises fuel prices

Aug. 19--Several hundred protesters rally in Yangon (Rangoon)

Aug. 21--Thirteen members of a pro-democracy group, the "88 Generation Students," are arrested

Sept. 5--Shots fired at monk's protest in Pakokku. Several people injured

Sept. 6--Buddhist monks hold 20 government officials hostage and demand an apology for the incident on Sept. 5

Sept. 22--10,000 monks protest in the city of Mandalay, and opposition leader (and Nobel Peace Prize winner), Aung San Suu Kyi meets and greets the monks in Yangon (Rangoon)

Sept. 24--Huge rally led by the monks draws 100,000 people to protest the government

Sept. 25--The military junta imposes a curfew and bans public gatherings

Sept. 26--Police and troops use tear gas, fire shots, beat and arrest several monks. Several Buddhist monasteries are raided by government forces.

Sept. 27--Troops shoot into crowds of protesters, killing at least nine.

Sept. 28--Troops beat more protesters, swiftly breoke up street gatherings, occupied influential Buddhist monasteries and cut public Internet access

 

 Sources and Links:
  1. Fuel price policy explodes in Myanmar
  2. The Economic Factors Behind the Myanmar Protests
  3. Burma leaders double fuel prices
  4. UN envoy warns of Myanmar crisis
  5. Military junta threatens monks in Burma
  6. 100,000 Protesters Flood Streets of Rangoon in "Saffron Revolution"
  7. "Nuns join monks in Burma's Saffron Revolution", Times Online, 2007-09-24.
  8. "Has Washington Found its Iranian Chalabi?", Mother Jones, October 6, 2006
  9. Q&A: Protests in Burma BBC, September 24, 2007
  10. Monks lead largest Burma protest BBC, September 24, 2007.
  11. 20,000 march in Myanmar protest.
  12. AFP:Democracy icon Aung San Suu Kyi greets Myanmar monks
  13. Monks' protest swells The Bangkok Post, September 23, 2007.
  14. Nuns in Burma anti-junta rallies
  15. 100,000 protest Myanmar junta CNN, September 24, 2007.
  16. US to impose new Burma sanctions BBC, September 24, 2007.
  17. Burmese military threatens monks
  18. Dalai Lama offers support to Myanmar monks
  19. Myanmar junta threatens military force Reuters, September 25, 2007.
  20. Burmese protesters defy junta's threat of crackdown
  21. Myanmar junta sets curfew Reuters, September 25, 2007.
  22. Myanmar imposes curfews after mass protests AFP, September 25, 2007.
  23. Pro-democracy politician arrested in Myanmar
  24. Burma monks march as police act BBC, September 26, 2007.
  25. Burma troops charge monks with batons
  26. Burma riot police beat back monks BBC, September 26, 2007.
  27. Over 100,000 people in Rangoon and parts of Burma protest Mizzima News, September 26, 2007.
  28. Protesters in Rangoon have dispersed for the day. Mizzima News, September 26, 2007.
  29. Minst tre munkar dödade i Burma Sveriges Radio, September 26, 2007.
  30. Monks defy warnings to protest in Myanmar International Herald Tribune, September 26, 2007
  31. Burmese junta raids monasteries, arrests over 200 monks Mizzima News, September 27, 2007.
  32. "Myanmar junta raids monasteries, arrests hundreds of monks", The Globe and Mail, 2007-09-26. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
  33. Reuters. "Myanmar junta raids monasteries", Reuters, 2007-09-27. Retrieved on 2007-09-26. 
  34. "Monks arrested in monastery raids", SKY News, 2007-09-27. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.  Junta Declares No-go Zones at Buddhist Monasteries The Irrawaddy, September 28, 2007.
  35. Insect spray to be used for crackdown on protesters Mizzima News, September 27, 2007.
  36. Burma: The world watches.
  37. "70,000 protesters defy Burma troops", guardian.co.uk, 2007-09-27. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
  38. "Burma troops issue 'extreme action' ultimatum", telegraph.co.uk, 2007-09-27. 
  39. "Soldater dræber ni i Myanmar", Politiken, 2007-09-27. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
  40. "Japansk fotograf dræbt i Myanmar", TV2 (Denmark), 2007-09-27. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
  41. "???????????????…????????????", Sankei Sports, 2007-09-28. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
  42. "Video shows Japanese journalist 'being shot deliberately'", timesonline.co.uk, 2007-09-28. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
  43. Fears of mounting death toll in Burma Financial Times, September 28, 2007.
  44. Security forces fire on school pupils Democratic Voice of Burma, September 28, 2007.
  45. At least nine dead, 10 injured Mizzima News, September 27, 2007.
  46. CPI condemns Burmese junta Mizzima News, September 27, 2007.
  47. Letter 'reveals dissent in Burmese army' The Guardian, September 27, 2007.
  48. Than Shwe's family in Laos Mizzima News, September 27, 2007.
  49. Bush hits out at 'brutal' BurmaBBC News, September 27, 2007.
  50. UN confirms its envoy to be allowed in Myanmar Inquirer.net, September 27, 2007.
  51. SMH.com.au - Burma cuts web access
  52. Two Shot in Clash with Troops; People with Cameras Singled Out The Irrawaddy Sept 28 2007
  53. Troops marching to Rangoon Mizzima News, September 28, 2007.

    Breaking News The Irrawaddy, September 28, 2007.

  54. ‘Coup’ claimed in Rangoon The First Post Newsdesk special report
  55. Rangoon: ‘army mutiny’ reported The First Post Newsdesk special report.
  56. Burma-Myanmar Genocide
  57. New protests on Rangoon streets BBC News article.
  58. Burma-Myanmar Genocide
  59. Mr. Gambari arrives in Nay Pi Daw Mizzina News, September 29, 2007.
  60. U.N. envoy flies into Myanmar maelstrom Reuters, India.
  61. More Burma protesters arrested as curfew orders ignored ABC News Australia
  62. Over 100,000 people in Rangoon and parts of Burma protest (Third to last paragraph) Mizzima News
  63. Yangon bloggers outsmart Myanmar censors AFP, September 25, 2007. Burma cyber-dissidents crack censorship BBC, September 26, 2007
  64. Burma 'cuts all Internet links' Bangkok Post, September 28, 2007
  65. Warning Shots Fired At Protesters Sky News, September 28, 2007
  66. Faced with Myanmar protests, China reaffirms nonintervention Inquierer.net, September 25, 2007.
  67. World urges restraint amid Myanmar protestsAFP, September 25, 2007.
  68. Pressure Builds on Myanmar as Protesters Are Shot At (Update)Bloomberg, September 27, 2007.
  69. Howard flags sanctions against BurmaAustralian Broadcasting Corporation News Online, September 27, 2007
  70. PM launches sanctions against juntaSydney Morning Herald, September 27, 2007.
  71. Desmond Tutu vädjar till Burmas ledare Dagens Nyheter, September 28, 2007.

 

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